RECORDS: DO IT YOURSELF?
I would like to start by reminding you that if you have any old family recordings
on disc, please have them transferred professionally before attempting to play
them. They are very fragile and easily damaged.
That said, collecting records can be fun and rewarding. I always enjoy perusing
the used records at a thrift store, hoping to find something in good playable
condition that hasn’t made it to Compact Disk.
If you haven’t cataloged your collection yet, now is the time because it would be
good to establish which material has already been produced on CD. Digitizing
the records you have will not necessarily produce sound files which sound better
than the commercially-produced CD's, so the decision to digitize them is yours. It
is, after all, good practice. This leaves you with the material that can’t be found on
CD; there is still a surprising amount left to be transferred to the digital realm.
Digitizing copyrighted material for your own use is legal (in the U.S.A.) so, all you
need is the equipment, the knowledge of how to use it, and the time to do it.
You will need a turntable, connected to a phono preamp, connected to an Analog
to Digital (A/D) converter, connected to a dedicated computer with dedicated
software for recording and creating (burning) CD’s. Entry level for the equipment
and software to do the job will run about $2500.00. If this sounds expensive,
consider that a restoration quality turntable, by itself, with an adequate selection
of cartridges and styli can cost $3000.00 or more.
Another possibility is to buy a turntable with a USB connection that connects
directly to your computer for digitizing records. The downside of these turntables
is that they tend to be one-size-fits-all players and won’t give you the best
possible transfer for every format. We’ve had two of these turntables (different
brands) in our family that belonged to my children, who also enjoy searching thrift
stores for old records. We have discovered that the digitized sound quality
produced by these types of turntables is average at best. If it’s really important,
they bring it to Dad. If, however, you are mainly interested in creating compressed
MP3 files or making up some travel music for driving in the car, a USB capable
turntable may just do the job. Some of these models have analog outputs as well
as digital, and my son discovered that using the analog output with a component
setup as described above yields better results.
Records take their own special preparation in order to get the best performance.
This will involve careful examination and cleaning (sometimes extensively) before
you select the proper stylus in order to get the best possible transfer. There are
several methods and cleaning machines available. When it comes to selecting
the best stylus, use your ears as the final judge. Because of groove wear, I have
sometimes made three transfers of the same side for 78RPM records: Above the
wear pattern, At the wear pattern (in the groove, as they say) and below the wear
pattern, closer to the bottom of the groove. The three transfers gives me (or the
customer) all of the possible choices. Sometimes, after playing an entire side, you
will want to try it again with a different stylus or cartridge to possibly improve
things. This is why a through cleaning is so important.
If you are merely a listener
and are only interested in playing records for your own enjoyment, the same will
There is some good reading at the Library of Congress website:
I would also recommend that
for a reasonably in- depth description of how records work.
Search the terms
and you’ll become reasonably well educated regarding the whole
process. There is some very good advice out there on the internet, but be careful.
Often, what seems like good advice is really someone’s opinion. Look for good
science and well established procedures. Check out my
page for additional
resources. I have assembled some simple
that are specific to records
and analog tape that may help as well.
As you may have already learned, the microgroove, long-playing, vinyl record
was first introduced in 1948. However, the 33-1/3 RPM long-playing record format
was first patented in 1931. The speed format had been used since the late 1920’s
when sound for motion pictures was introduced by the Warner Brothers. This
consisted of discs mechanically synchronized to a film projector. This process
(and the discs) was called Vitaphone. The 33-1/3 speed format wasn’t well
received by the record- buying public when it was first introduced in the early
1930’s as people were already set up for the 78 RPM record. However, it became
popular as a format for 16” diameter discs used for transcribing radio broadcasts.
These early versions of the 33-1/3 speed format used the same groove width as
78 RPM discs. Both the early movie sound (Vitaphone) and radio transcription
disks were cut, one at a time, into nitrocellouse lacquer coated blank discs and
were designed for only a few plays. Some of these disc types had a center of
aluminum and some were glass. The discs that were lacquer coated glass came
into being during WWII as aluminum was in short supply. If you own or come
across any of these, please understand that they are very, very delicate and can
be easily damaged by incorrect equipment or handling. On the subject of
handling: DO NOT touch the surface of any lacquer coated instantaneous disk
with your bare hands. The moisture and oils from your skin can cause a chemical
reaction that, over time, leaves a permanent mark and can affect the playability
of the disk. When handling any lacquer coated disc, use cotton or rubber gloves
to avoid direct contact with the surface of the disc. That said, some radio
transcription disks were manufactured as vinyl discs for distribution to many radio
Microgroove LP’s were monaural until 1957 when the Stereo LP was introduced.
The question is often asked by those who enjoy collecting old LP’s if it is OK to
play an old mono vinyl record with a stereo stylus. The short answer is yes.
A properly adjusted turntable with a stereo cartridge and stylus will not physically
damage a mono LP, and, likewise, a properly adjusted mono stylus will not
damage a stereo LP.
There are however, some trade-offs:
Playing a stereo record with a mono cartridge and stylus
The information on a stereo LP is derived from the opposite sides of the grove
wall. The grooves are cut at 90 degrees (right angle), with the inner side of the
groove containing the Left Channel information and the outer groove wall
containing the Right Channel information. A monaural cartridge and stylus is
designed to only move laterally (side-to-side). So, the stereo information is
summed to mono. The balance of the original stereo mix can be altered by
possible phase cancellation of common signals on both sides of the groove wall.
Another, more common, effect of playing a stereo disc with a mono stylus is that
the (in phase) common information on both sides of the groove walls will sum and
increase dramatically in volume, causing an alteration of the intended blend of
instruments and vocals. This is most noticeable with vocals, drums and any
instruments originally placed in the center of a stereo mix. Another side effect that
can often be noticed is a reduction of the echo that was inherent in the original
stereo mix, because echo (reverberation) is random by nature and some of it will
phase cancel causing a comb filter effect. It all comes down to just how mono-
compatible the original mix was.
During my tenure as a Recording Engineer and Mixer, nearly all of the stereo
mixes destined for albums were mixed strictly for stereo listening, and mono
compatibility was often disregarded even though I always suggested that stereo
mixes be listened to in mono before final approval. Any singles derived from
albums were remixed for mono compatibility to be played on AM Radio and were
released on the 45 RPM format discs. Many 45 RPM discs are stereo which
leaves it up to the AM radio station to perform the mono compilation.
Playing a mono record with a stereo cartridge and stylus
Monaural Lp’s were recorded laterally (or horizontally). If you think of an
imaginary line in the center of the groove as you look down on it, each groove
wall has an equal part of the signal or waveform. So now, we’re going to play this
groove with a stylus designed to play each side of he groove separately. What
happens is that when the Left + Right information is played as mono (as it should
be), out of both channels of your stereo system, it will sound OK. I say OK
because any common information can be phase canceled when played as mono
so the record may not sound quite as good as it would when played with a mono
cartridge. The random surface noise (clicks, pops, etc.) will play in stereo while
the mono mix is in the center of the sound field. If your stereo system has a mono
switch, use it when playing mono records on your stereo turntable and it will
phase cancel some of the surface noise. If you rotate your balance control from
side to side while playing a mono record on your stereo turntable you should
notice no difference in fidelity. It all depends on small differences in record wear,
stylus wear, manufacturing tolerances, etc.
The practice of retrieving the sound from Edison cylinders and obscure 78 RPM
records using a stereo cartridge and stylus, is well known among archivists. The
idea is to be able to use the best results from either channel. This process is often
used for those recordings which require a substantial amount of restoration.
Here is a link to an excellent representation of how the various styli track a record
I should point out that some early manufacture turntables and styli can damage a
disc by applying too much force or, at least, cause additional wear to an otherwise
playable record. These are usually the inexpensive types that often have a “flip-
over” cartridge to accommodate both LP’s and 78 RPM records. More often than
not, these “one size fits all” players will be improperly adjusted for both formats.
78 RPM Records
Commercially produced records of the 78 RPM era were often called “Shellacs”
because the discs were comprised of a mixture of ingredients that were bonded
together by shellac. The mixture of ingredients was generally a closely guarded
secret held by the various record companies. Be very, very careful when handling
these discs. They are
brittle. When cleaning these old discs, know the
ingredients of any wet solution you plan to use. Alcohol based solutions, for
example, will damage this type of disc.
Very old 78 RPM records, manufactured around the beginning of the Twentieth
Century, will, as often as not, have to be speed corrected to obtain the correct
pitch of the music recording. This is because the developed standards were
loosely adhered to until about 1925. After that, the vast majority of 78 RPM
records produced in the US were actually recorded at 78.26 RPM, while the
majority of discs produced in Europe were recorded at 77.98 RPM. The reason is
that the electric motors (from the mid-1920’s onward) used to spin the platter for
disk cutting lathes and consumer record players were referenced to the power
line frequency, which is 60
in the US and 50Hz in Europe.
The standards for the manufacture of 78 RPM records regarding the
Record/Playback equalization were quite often different from one record company
to another until things were standardized in the late 1930’s.
This is the area that will involve the most research in order to properly play most
78 RPM records.
Instantaneous discs: Home Recordings
Once in a great while you may come across homemade disc recordings.
These records are often referred to as “instantaneous discs”. There were several
brands of record recording machines produced for the consumer market during
the 1930's, 40's and the early 1950's. These one-off recordings were typically
laminated with vinyl over a composite (cardboard like) center layer, and some are
(typically black) lacquer applied to an aluminum disc. Many have not survived in
playable condition. Those that have are extremely delicate. During this same era
there were some disc recording machines in the local variety and department
stores, and for 25 cents or so you could make a recording. During World War II,
one could find those record making machines in the local USO and they were
popular for sending voice letters overseas. The department store vending
machines survived into the 1950's in some areas of the USA and if you have any
of these recordings made by your relatives, I strongly suggest that you contact a
professional to have transfers made before attempting to play any of these types
of disc. Know that the same handling precautions apply as mentioned above for
lacquer coated discs.
I have digitized a number of these homemade discs. I’m perfecting a process to
flatten them and reduce the severity of the ridge-like cracks that tend to form over
time on the vinyl over composite variety. So far, I’ve been able to reduce the
physical problems by an average of 75%, which has made some discs playable
that would have otherwise been lost to time. I plan to eventually publish my
findings and describe the process which should be relatively easy to replicate.
If you have records made from the turn of the last century up to the early 1950’s,
you will need a turntable that can accommodate the various sizes of discs and be
capable of a variable speed of at least plus or minus 20%. You will need a phono
preamp with separate equalization (tone) controls in order to achieve the proper
playback equalization. Additionally, I would recommend a selection of 78 RPM
styli in order get the best fit to the various groove types that were cut, and be able
to allow for groove wear.
In conclusion, in order to get the best possible fidelity from any record, it should
be played with the cartridge and stylus for which it was designed. Getting the best
out of your record collection does have a learning curve and you can get as
involved as you like. That's the fun of it!
© Corey Bailey Audio Engineering
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